Health Benefits of Berries: Blackberries

Salmonella Typhimurium TA100
Tate, P. ; Stanner, A. ; Shields, K. ; Smith, S. ; Larcom, L.
Nutrition Research, 2006, 26(2), 100-104

Inhibition of Nitric Oxide Biosynthesis by Anthocyanin Fraction of Blackberry Extract
Pergola, C.; Rossi, A.; Dugo, P.; Cuzzocrea, S.; Sautebin, L.
Nitric Oxide-Biology and Chemistry, 2006, 15(1), 30-39

Cyanidin-3-Glucoside, a Natural Product Derived from Blackberry Exhibits Chemopreventive and Chemotherapeutic Activity.
Ding, M. ; Feng, R. ; Wang, S. V. ; Bowman, L. ; Lu, Y. ; Qian, Y. ; Castranova, V. ; Jiang, B.-H. ; Shi, X.
Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2006, 281(25), 17359-17368

Anthocyanin Metabolism in Rats and Their Distribution to Digestive Area, Kidney, and Brain
Talavéra S; Felgines C; Texier O; Besson C; Gil-Izquierdo A; Lamaison JL; Rémésy C 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2005, 53(10), 3902-3908


Anthocyanins are present in human diet due to their wide occurrence in fruits and beverages. They possess antioxidant activities and could be involved in several health effects. The aim of this study was to investigate anthocyanin metabolism and distribution in the digestive area organs (stomach, jejunum and liver) and kidney, as well as a target tissue (brain) in rats fed with a blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L.) anthocyanin-enriched diet for 15 days. Identification and quantification of anthocyanin metabolites was carried out by HPLC-ESI-MS-MS and HPLC-DAD, respectively. The stomach exhibited only native blackberry anthocyanins (cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-pentose), while in other organs (jejunum, liver, and kidney) native and methylated anthocyanins as well as conjugated anthocyanidins (cyanidin and peonidin monoglucuronides) were identified. Proportions of anthocyanin derivatives differed according to the organ considered, with the liver presenting the highest proportion of methylated forms. Jejunum and plasma also contained aglycone forms. In the brain, total anthocyanin content (blackberry anthocyanins and peonidin 3-O-glucoside) reached 0.25 +/- 0.05 nmol/g of tissue (n = 6). The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins was low (0.19 +/- 0.02% of the ingested amount). Thus, organs of the digestive area indicated a metabolic pathway of anthocyanins with enzymatic conversions (methylation and/or glucurono-conjugation). Moreover, following consumption of an anthocyanin-rich diet, anthocyanins enter the brain.

Fatty Acid Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Cold-Pressed Marionberry, Boysenberry, Red Raspberry, and Blueberry Seed Oils
Parry, J.; Su, L.; Luther, M.; Zhou, K.; Yurawecz, M. P.; Whittaker, P.; Yu, L.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2005, 53(3), 566-573


Plants are proven sources of useful anti-tumour and chemopreventative compounds. Hence, identification of phytochemicals useful in dietary prevention and intervention of cancer is of paramount importance. The initial step in the formation of cancer is damage to the genome of a somatic cell producing a mutation in an oncogene or a tumour-suppressor gene. In this study, fresh juices and organic solvent extracts from strawberries, blueberries and raspberries were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the production of mutations by the direct-acting mutagen methyl methanesulfonate and the metabolically activated carcinogen benzo[alpha]pyrene. Juice from strawberries, blueberries and raspberries significantly inhibited mutagenesis caused by both carcinogens. Ethanol extracts from freeze-dried fruits of strawberry cultivars (Sweet Charlie and Carlsbad) and blueberry cultivars (Tifblue and Premier) were also tested. Of these, the hydrolyzable tannin-containing fraction from Sweet Charlie strawberries was most effective at inhibiting mutations.

Rebuttal on Comparison of the Total Phenolic and Ascorbic Acid Content of Freeze-Dried and Air-Dried Marionberry, Strawberry, and Corn Grown Using Conventional, Organic, and Sustainable Agricultural Practices
Mitchell, A. E.; Barrett, D. M.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2004, 52(1), 150-152
Short Communication, no abstract

Comment on Comparison of the Total Phenolic and Ascorbic Acid Content of Freeze-Dried and Air-Dried Marionberry, Strawberry, and Corn Grown Using Conventional, Organic, and Sustainable Agricultural Practices
Felsot, A. S.; Rosen, J. D.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2004, 52(1), 146-148
Short communication, no abstract

Comparison of the Total Phenolic and Ascorbic Acid Content of Freeze-Dried and Air-Dried Marionberry, Strawberry, and Corn Grown Using Conventional, Organic, and Sustainable Agricultural Practices
Asami, D. K.; Hong, Y.-J.; Barrett, D. M.; Mitchell, A. E.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2003, 51(6), 1237-1241


Secondary phenolic metabolites play an important role in plant defense mechanisms, and increasing evidence indicates that many are important in human health. To date, few studies have investigated the impact of various agricultural practices on levels of secondary plant metabolites. To address this issue, the total phenolic (TP) content of marionberries, strawberries, and corn grown by sustainable, organic, or conventional cultural practices were measured. Additionally, the effects of three common postharvest processing treatments (freezing, freeze-drying, and air-drying) on the TP content of these agricultural products were also investigated. Statistically higher levels of TPs were consistently found in organically and sustainably grown foods as compared to those produced by conventional agricultural practices. In all samples, freeze-drying preserved higher levels of TPs in comparison with air-drying.

Blackberry Extracts Inhibit Activating Protein 1 Activation and Cell Transformation by Perturbing the Mitogenic Signaling Pathway
Feng, Rentian; Bowman, Linda L.; Lu, Yongju; Leonard, Stephen S.; Shi, Xianglin; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Castranova, Vince; Vallyathan, Val; Ding, Min
Nutrition and Cancer, 2004, 50(1), 80-89


Blackberries are natural rich sources of bioflavonoids and phenolic compounds that are commonly known as potential chemopreventive agents. Here, we investigated the effects of fresh blackberry extracts on proliferation of cancer cells and neoplastic transformation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), as well as the underlying mechanisms of signal transduction pathways. Using electron spin resonance, we found that blackberry extract is an effective scavenger of free radicals, including hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. Blackberry extract inhibited the proliferation of a human lung cancer cell line, A549. Pretreatment of A549 cells with blackberry extract resulted in an inhibition of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. Blackberry extract decreased TPA-induced neoplastic transformation of JB6 P+ cells. Pretreatment of JB6 cells with blackberry extract resulted in the inhibition of both UVB- and TPA-induced AP-1 transactivation. Furthermore, blackberry extract also blocked UVB- or TPA-induced phosphorylation of ERKs and JNKs, but not p38 kinase. Overall, these results indicated that an extract from fresh blackberry may inhibit tumor promoter-induced carcinogenesis and associated cell signaling, and suggest that the chemopreventive effects of fresh blackberry may be through its antioxidant properties by blocking reactive oxygen species-mediated AP-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.